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In drilling operations, well completion carried out at the final stage. After completion of drilling, usually we will measure conditions in the subsurface formation wells with wireline logging or the Drill Stem Test. If the economic value well, then we are biased to continue well completion. But if not economical, then the well will be shut down or ignored by the plug (bias also with cement retainer). The types of well completion are:
Open Hole Completion
Open Hole Completion is a type of well completion where the installation of casing just above the productive zone so productive formations allowed to remain open without casing kebawahnya. So openly productive formations produced to the surface.
Advantages Open Hole Completion:
- Low cost and sederahana
- Easy to do when Logging back
- Easy to deepen wells
- Does not require perforation charges
Disadvantages of Open Hole Completion:
- The cost of care is expensive (need to sand clean-up routine)
- Difficult stimulation in the producing zone
- Unable to make the selection of production zones
- The rocks on formation must Consolidated
Cased Hole Completion
Cased Hole Completion is a kind of completion using overall casing to cover the productive formation zone was perforated to memproduksikannya.
Advantage Cased Hole Completion:
- Can perform multiple completion
- Productive zone between the layers do not communicate with each other so as to facilitate the calculation of flowrate of each layer
- More accurate in determining the depth of subsurface equipment. Because wireline logging is done before production.
- It is good to be applied to productive sandstone formations.
We regularly catch agents for the oil and regular gas industry discuss how the extensive new shale gas and oil assets uncovered as of late were made conceivable by the wedding of two innovations: Hydraulic Fracturing (“Fracking” in media speech) and Horizontal Drilling. Once that proclamation is made, the discourse with news journalists, at townhall gatherings and openly talking engagements then fast concentrates on the “Fracking” part of the mathematical statement, leaving Horizontal Drilling to sit greatly disregarded and unappreciated by the media and the people in question.
This is a disgrace, on the grounds that the reality of the situation is that, of the two innovations, Horizontal Drilling is the genuine wonder of designing and investigative advancement. While stunning in its particular right, the principle improvements in “Fracking” as of late have been beefing up the producing strength to oblige level wells instead of vertical ones, and refining of the liquids used to ration water and make better, longer continuing on breaks in the target development.
This is all incredible stuff, and all indispensible to make our continuous shale blast, yet the genuine wonder is the enhancement that has occur in the domain of Horizontal Drilling. Contemplate what this progression has denoted barely regarding access to the assets: When drilling into a hydrocarbon bearing development 100 feet thick, vertical drilling might permit a specialist to contact 100 feet of rock, which might restrict your potential recuperation to whatever oil or gas might stream into that length of channel.
Even Drilling now permits the aforementioned same specialists to penetrate and set pipe for a mile or all the more evenly through this same rock creation. You are currently reaching and “Fracking” 5,200 feet of rock instead of 100 feet, which reproduces needed well recuperation rates numerous times over. The innovation utilized is so progressed and demanding that drillers today can hit a focus at the close of a drill string that is 10,000 feet vertical with a mile long even area that is no more than a couple of inches in measurement. Drillers additionally utilize sensors to discover especially guaranteeing shake interims inside the arrangement, and are ready to move the drill hang or down, left or right as they penetrate through the flat segment to focus on those interims.
The aforementioned remarkable innovative accomplishments empower specialists to amplify comes back from every well, which in turn connotes higher sovereignty installments to mineral holders, and higher assessment incomes for nearby and state burdened powers.
Propelled level drilling engineering additionally generates positive comes about for nature’s turf. A solitary flat well can reinstate the requirement to bore twelve or significantly more vertical wells to gain entrance to a comparable level of asset. For nature’s turf this methods far less air emanations, far less water utilization and transfer needs, and far less arrive swayed to transform a comparable product of oil and regular gas.
During the global economic expansion of the mid-2000s, precious metals (such as gold), oil, and other commodities increased significantly in value. The surge in oil prices certainly garnered plenty of headlines when it surged past $100 per barrel. So, too, did the price of gold as it surged past $1,000 per ounce in 2008, setting a new all-time high. These prices represented tremendous increases over the past decade with the price of oil having increased more than 600 percent (from less than $20 per barrel) and gold more than tripling in value (from less than $300 per ounce).
However, despite these seemingly major moves, when considering the increases in the cost of living, at $100-plus per barrel, oil prices were just reaching the levels attained in late 1979! And even with gold hitting about $1,500 per ounce in 2011 as this book went to press, it was still far from the inflation-adjusted levels it reached nearly three decades earlier. To reach those levels, gold would have to rise to more than $2,000 an ounce!
So although the price increases in gold andoil (as well as some other commodities) were dramatic during the past decade, over the past 30 years, oil and gold increased in value less than the overall low rate of U.S. inflation. So one would hardly have gotten rich investing in oil and gold over the long-term — rather it would have been more like treading water.
I’d like to make one final and important point here: Over the long-term, investing in a stock mutual fund that focuses on companies involved with precious metals has provided far superior returns compared with investing in gold, silver, or other commodities directly.
Before you can select a pump that will fit your needs, you must know four things:
1) the total head or pressure against which it must operate,
2) the desired flowrate,
3) the suction lift, and
4) characteristics of the fluid.
Aquaculture operations imply that you will be pumping water,but you also need to know such things as the temperature range, the corrosiveness (is it salty water?), and how much and what kind of trash or debris such as sand, dirt, leaves, fish or twigs may be in the water. With this knowledge, you and your dealer can select the proper pump. The total head, suction lift and flow rate are dependent upon the piping system and the pump’s characteristics. The piping system and the pump interact to determine the operating point of the pump flow rate and pressure.
The pump cannot independently control these parameters. As the flow rate is increased the work to move each unit of water or total dynamic head the pump must produce increases. A pump will typically have reduced capacity as the pressure or head it is pumping against increases. The operating point of the system occurs when the two curves cross.
In order to obtain a pumping system that will meet your requirements, and meet them in an efficient manner, you must match the pump to the piping system and required flow rate. Manufacturers should be able to supply a pump curve which shows the performance of the pump and the allowable operating ranges. Do not plan to operate outside of this recommended range outside this may damage the pump. Your dealer may also be able to help you analyze or plan your piping system. Information on piping systems is also available in the SRAC Publication No. 373, Piping Systems.
While the global financial markets have displayed considerable strength despite the growing economic tumult, it is only natural that they should continue to experience fluctuating fortunes and volatile conditions. This principle can be applied to a number of individual markets and financial instruments, each of which are directly impacted by wider economic events.
Crude oil prices have endured a particularly unstable 2012, as the eurozone crisis has taken hold and had a drastic impact on nations including Greece, Portugal, Italy, Spain and Ireland. The situation has hardly been helped by talk of the fiscal cliff in the U.S., which could force the federal government to implement widespread tax hikes and slash public spending by up to $600 billion from 2013.
Why Prices have Consolidated as December Approaches
Fortunately there has at least been some positive news in the crude oil market this week, as eurozone ministers and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) finally agreed a deal to financial additional loans to debt ridden Greece. While the estimated sum of 47 billion Euros will provide only temporary relief and falls some way short of the amount that Greek investors had called for, it does lay a foundation from which Greece can reduce their fiscal liability and approach a financially solvent future.
This has allayed growing concern in the financial markets, and allowed crude oil prices to stabilize in line with the global economy. As a consequence, Brent North Sea crude for delivery in January eased by 52 cents to $110.40 a barrel on the London Stock Exchange at the beginning of the week, while the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) exchange added nine U.S. cents to achieve a price of $87.83 per barrel. These price movements reflected a sudden surge in investor confidence, as both the U.S. Congress and eurozone ministers edged closer towards respective resolutions.
The Need for Caution: Why the Most Recent Greek Bail-Out Does not Guarantee Long Term Market Stability
The news of an additional Greek bail-out has also been supplemented by surprising statistics in the U.S., which suggested that the consumer confidence index rose from 73.1 to 73.7 and achieved its highest level since February, 2008. Despite the initial sentiment that greeted both of these announcements, however, the mood of investors has already began to dissipate. This is primarily due to the lack of definitive or authoritative economic projections for 2013, which continues to create instability and uncertainty within the financial markets.
As if to reaffirm this, the crude oil recovery and subsequent period of consolidation is already showing signs of stalling. After the initial wave of positivity among investors began to wane, the price of crude oil remained fixed at $88.23 per barrel as caution again emerged as the watchword for market participants. Although economist predict that sideways price movements are likely in the coming weeks, it is thought that only a break above $88.50 per barrel would dramatically improve the near-term outlook.
Brazilian oil goliath Petrobras advertised revamped ultra deepwater discovery in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin
Petrobras on Wednesday advertised the discovery of another light hydrocarbon collection in ultra profound waters of the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, in square SEAL-M-424.
Petrobras’ fourth major deepwater discovery in the bowl for the present year, the discovery happened throughout the boring of well 1-BRSA-1108-SES (1-SES-172).
The well is 85 km off the Aracaju coast, state of Sergipe, at a water profundity of 2,583 metres. Boring was finished at a profundity of 5,347 metres.
Reputed to be Muriú, the well was found in the stores of the Calumbi structuring. The discovery was affirmed through log information examination. Force information investigation and liquid inspecting from the supplies showed the presence of light oil. Petrobras is the sole admin of the SEAL-M-424 concession.
Petrobras will move with logging operations (records of qualities of a structuring) and to accumulate shake and liquid information from this well, with the point of getting ready the evaluation methodology of the unique discovery, and additionally to portray the states of the repositories recognized. The following step can be to submit the Discovery Assessment Plan to the National Petroleum Agency
Petroleum geoscience is geology and geophysics applied to petroleum exploration and production. In this post we will try to show the wide range of disciplines that are relevant and useful for this purpose. Many of the disciplines in the geosciences are highly specialised and there is often too little communication between the different fields. Most researchers naturally focus on a very small area because of the requirements with respect to methods and analytical techniques, and the demands of following the literature.
Petroleum geoscience requires a broad overview of substantial parts of geology and geophysics and provides good training in the integration of very different types of data and models. These skills are also applicable in many types of environmental research and when solving practical environment problems. The petroleum industry employs a large percentage of the world’s geologists and geophysicists and funds much of the research in this field.
Most of the obvious petroleum-bearing structures have already been found in the explored sedimentary basins and there are now rather few areas that have yet to be explored seismically and by drilling. The large, easy-to-find structures did not usually require very advanced methods and geological skills. More and more sophisticated methods are therefore used in modern exploration. We are on a global basis not finding enough new oil fields oil to replace the produced oil. Global reserves have however not changed very much because of higher estimates of recovery from existing fields and because unconventional oil like tar sand is now included in the reserves.
There is a major challenge for geoscientists to develop ever better exploration methods and to optimise production. Even if the global production of conventional oil may be reduced there will be significant production for many decades. This will mostly come from the tail production of giant fields and from small reservoirs, but it is rather labour intensive. This is also the case with unconventional oil (tar sand and oil shale) and also tight gas reserves and shale gas.
The actual owner need to reduce deviation inclinations within the 8 1/2-in vertical opening part, drilling the difficult J2x development to help efficiently develop gasoline stores with Turfan pot, The far east. The task would be to retain around ideal verticle with respect opening trajectory from 2400-3500m even though drilling interbedded soft sand claystone as well as coal tiers. From the most detrimental event circumstances, the owner is usually forced to generate numerous pricey a static correction runs before starting the side to side manufacturing opening. To solve the problems, designers attempted pendulum as well as steerable engine BHAs to keep up wellbore vertically along with limited success.
Recently, Kekeya water wells Ke28 as well as Ke33 necessary 6 to help 5 bits/trips respectively to finish the 8 1/2-in opening part from unacceptably small common ROPs of 1. 6 m/hr as well as two. 4 m/hr. The actual owner necessary any PDC/deviation command software to keep up verticality as well as improve ROP. To achieve the aim, the drilling group utilised any rock strength software plus a bit/BHA modeling process to research distinctive lowering buildings to determine the ideal sharp edge depend as well as second hand cutter location configuration. Using the research, any six-bladed 8 1/2-in PDC tad had been recognized as the most beneficial applicant to complete the goals. For you to mitigate deviation inclinations, a trusted intelligent vertical drilling process (VDS) had been chosen. The actual trustworthy VDS software will not need a MWD recording subwoofer and can end up being used while in typical drilling businesses such as backreaming as well as footwear drillout.
A massive growing market tore by way of Venezuela’s major refinery in Thursday, getting rid of no less than all day and folks in addition to wounding over 50 with To the south Many major gas developer, officials explained.
Vice Chief executive Elias Jaua explained a lot of the dead were being customers on the nation’s National Shield have been shielding your refining facility inside city connected with Amuay, on the Paraguana Peninsula inside northwest.
A different 56 citizens were hurt, this individual explained, upgrading an early on toll. Of the people, several remained with medical with critical ailment, although two were being utilized in a neighbouring state along with the remainder discharged.
Falcon Point out Governor Stella Lugo acquired sooner explained to state telly that will a type of murdered had been a 10-year-old child.
Vitality Minister Rafael Ramirez explained your great time had been sparked by a petrol trickle, the reason which in turn remained being motivated.
“The petrol impair exploded, igniting no less than two safe-keeping tanks as well as other amenities on the refinery, inch this individual explained.
Ramirez explained your growing market had been highly effective in addition to induced “significant damage” not simply towards the grow, but in addition to help neighborhood shops in addition to homes.
“There is usually considerable injury to your infrastructure in addition to residences that will were standing in front of the refinery, inch your minister explained to state-controlled VTV telly.
Afterwards each day, firefighters could deliver your flame in check, officials explained.
Smoking had been still billowing from your facility, however Lugo explained there were absolutely no risk connected with another great time.
Jaua required to help Twitter soon there after your growing market, writing how the “damage had been significant” knowning that added ambulances in addition to medics had been stationed towards the picture, in addition to Venezuelan military.
Before the great time, your Amuay refinery, one of the primary on this planet, was able to process concerning 645, 000 barrels connected with raw daily.
Venezuela generates three million barrels connected with gas per day (mbd), according to state numbers, even though the Operation on the Petroleum Transferring Countries (OPEC) positions the number with two. 3 mbd.
OPEC accredited with 2011 that will Venezuela contains the major gas stores on this planet with 296. 5 billion barrels, surpassing Saudi Arabic, america with all the major refining volume.
Throughout Drive, Venezuelan authorities claimed also greater stores, connected with 297, 570 billion.